Advice a radio engineering


The soldering of aluminium and its alloys

The smoothed out and skim place of the soldering cover with the help of a soldering iron a thin layer of rosin, and then at once rub with a tablet of analginum . After that tin a surface solder !-50 (or close to it(him)), pressing to it(her) with small effort a sting of slightly superheated soldering iron.

With tin places acetone wash off the rests of a flux(dental abscess), once again cautiously warm up and again wash off a flux(dental abscess). Tin details make in the usual image.

Useful advice(councils)

To receive undistinguished and very strong connection at a molecular level it is possible, having moistened the bursted plastic acetone .

>;8E;>@28=8;>2K5 tubes it is easier to pull on 87>;8@C5 subjects (screw-drivers, tweezers, radio components) if on 15-20 mines to place them in acetone.

The large detail can be soldered and a usual soldering iron (25-40 W) if to warm up her(it), for example, on a gas cooker.

Pieces of the top isolation of a telecable can serve as handles for rotation of potentiometers.

$>;L38@>20==0O on the one hand a wrapper from chocolate - good stuff for shielding by "impromptu" ' of designs.

Having submitted high (~8 kV) a voltage from the TV on the central vein of the individual aerial (to not confuse with collective!), it is possible remotely-operated to restore contact in galvanic-pair " copper (tin) - iron ".

Roughly silvered plates from old " TVs can serve as a material for manufacturing and repair of contact devices (for example, a relay - regulator of a refrigerator).

For microdetails, electric-shaving, etc. it is possible to cut contact brushes from graphite cores from old 10B0@55: a feed(meal).

Zinc for manufacturing ?0O;L=>9 can be found acids in old 10B0@59:0E a feed(meal).

Connection in parallel to through passage M;5:B@>;8B8G5A:> to the condenser of the Soviet manufacture ceramic or metallic-paper smaller capacity (1/10-1/100 capacities M;5:B@>;8B8G5A:>3>) appreciablly improves quality of a sound in #'.

The most simple indicator for check of the transformer of lower case development(display) a neon bulb or the indicator of the electrician. At his(its) present to the lower case transformer for the account @0AA58205<>3> an electromagnetic field it(he) shines. On on what distance from "! there is a luminescence, it is possible to judge serviceability of all block of lower case development(display). For lamp TVs it is 10-12 sm, for TVs ZUSTST 10-15 see.

During repair of the TV do not put a desk lamp on his(its) case. She(it) will necessarily fall and will beat off a mouth of a kinescope.

At the soldering of details above a mouth of a kinescope cover its(her) piece of a matter, it you will save a kinescope from casually falling fused solder and, hence, from cracks in his(its) glass.

Repairing a pulse power unit (UPS), disconnect it(him) from the TV and load with a bulb 75 B for 220 Century So you will save microcircuits and transistors of the TV from damage because of the possible(probable) jumps of a pressure(voltage) arising at repair of the UPS, especially the stabilizer.

After inclusion of the TV switching from remote control (#) carry out(spend) not earlier than through 4-5 with, as at transients in a power unit (up to achievement of nominal having pressure(voltage)) the behaviour of the microcontroller (processor) and it(him) # is not predicted. For the same reason it is not recommended repeatedly by the button to include - disconnect the TV.

Let's children play with # at the working TV as, pressing randomly buttons, it is possible to transfer(translate) the TV in a service mode and @0A?@>3@0<<8@>20BL his(its) microcontroller with #.

The abundance of a dust inside the TV is caused by presence in it(him) of a high pressure(voltage) and an electrostatic field. Motes on payments and details of the TV are built in chains along power(force) lines of an electric field and are dangerous that considerably reduce resistance of isolation. It results in the raised(increased) outflow of a current, spark categories and in a result - to breakdowns of isolation and damage of the TV. Therefore the dust is necessary for deleting, even once a year. Clearing of a dust is the best way for carrying out(for spending), sweeping away its(her) soft brush and sucking away a vacuum cleaner. Clearing of a dust inside the case should not be neglected, as its(her) abundance can cause self-ignition of TVs, especially lamp.

Soldering iron in on duty heating include through the diode, it you considerably prolong to it(him) a life.

At replacement M;5:B@>;8B8G5A:8E condensers, except for observance of polarity, it is not necessary to exceed an allowable working pressure(voltage) considerably. For example, if the condenser is designed for a working pressure(voltage) 16 In at installation new the same capacity, but designed for a pressure(voltage) 300 In the ambassador of short operation will take place it(him) @0AD>@<>2:0, and the capacity of it(him) will considerably decrease.

Presence of a high pressure(voltage) on a sucker can be checked up a screw-driver connected to the case through the resistor 3-5 <. Presence of the resistor necessarily as without him(it) because of the big current it is possible to damage(injure) the multiplier or the lower case transformer such as "!.

Store(Keep) microcircuits in the packing providing 70:>@0G820=85 of their conclusions, for example, wrapped up in aluminium foil. At ?5@5=>A:5 do not concern conclusions of a microcircuit, take for the case, differently your static electricity can damage(injure) a microcircuit.

Carry out(Spend) the soldering only at the switched off TV, otherwise having short-circuited pathes (even it is short-term), you will enter new malfunctions.

Sometimes in the TV 35B8=0:A>2K5 printed circuit boards from the raised(increased) temperatures char (burn out). At repair necessarily cut this place and ?>:@>9B5 any glue. Otherwise in the charred place because of low isolation will be outflow of a current and 8A:@5=85.

In a cable television some channels go with the big level and at high sensitivity of the TV prevent anothers. This influence is shown in an overlay of two images: on the basic in a horizontal direction the staff of the preventing image are floating. To get rid of it, lower sensitivity of the TV tuning resistor ARU.

In a cable television on the first frequency channel render strong preventing influence the radio telephones working on the same frequencies. Influence is shown during telephone conversation as a grid on the screen. To get rid of this "neighbourhood" careful shielding of cables and distributive boxes it is not possible. The TV thus is not guilty. An output(exit) one: to ask owners of a network of a cable television to switch your favourite program to other channel.

If one of throttles of the resonant stabilizer, 70159B5 a wooden wedge between his(its) coils "roars".

)C? becomes universal if with return his(its) party(side) on a short wire to solder "crocodile" in a rubber cover.

Rosin can be made itself, having collected in a wood pine (not fur-tree!) pitch and having melted her(it) in a can.

The alkalis processed by a water solution steel contacts (for example, 10B0@59=>3> a compartment of a portable radio tape recorder or board DU) never will rust.

From old spokes from a bicycle or a umbrella(parasol), 2?;02;5==KE a soldering iron in cylindrical pieces of plastic, convenient adjusting screw-drivers turn out.

>AK?02 the place of the soldering sand or having rubred with a crumbled stone, is possible to solder usual methods even aluminium.

Instead of a high-voltage wire it is possible to use usual, having passed(missed) it(him) through a tube from a dropper.

Dielectric (diamagnetic) screw-drivers can be cut from old AB5:;>B5:AB>;8B>2KE payments.

To sort stuff the magnet which has been wrapped up in a paper or polythene will help.

At replacement of a radio component to release(exempt) an aperture from solder it is possible the pointed match.

48>4=>3> the bridge consisting of four diodes, it is possible to raise(increase) a target pressure(voltage) in 1,5-2 times. For this purpose it is necessary in parallel for any of four diodes to connect the condenser in capacity not below With which is used in the rectifier. It is convenient, when at replacement of the burned down transformer the secondary winding does not give out a necessary pressure(voltage), and 4><>B0BL her(it) it is impossible, as the replaced transformer is filled with germetic.

It is possible to use a braid of a television cable of user's connection of TV in multi-storey houses for grounding. It is especially convenient, when it is necessary to solder field transistors and microcircuits, and grounding nearby is not present. Using 0=B5==>5 the jack and a piece of a wire, is possible to leave easily from difficult position.

Preparation of chloric iron

Many prefer to process payments in a solution of chloric iron as in it(him) etching goes much faster.

We offer rather simple way of preparation of chloric iron in domestic conditions. It will need the technical hydrochloric acid sold in shops of the economic goods, and dioxide of iron - a rust. In three-liter to bank pour approximately 1  ; acids, observing necessary safety measures, and fall asleep there gradually dioxide of iron until reaction will be stopped. After upholding the solution should be merged in other utensils - it(he) is ready to etching.

Work is desirable for carrying out(for spending) outside of premises as during reaction a plenty of foam and the gases having a unpleasant smell is allocated, and in the fine(expostulate) there can be rests of an acid.

Workplace of the radioelectronician

Workshop not all on a pocket, the good workshop, and especially a tooling are created by years. Especially when there comes skill purchased tools any more do not meet our requirements, it is necessary to make tools the hands, but for this purpose it is necessary to have not only a workplace, but also the corresponding equipment. 

But already and from the work you will receive pleasure incomparable with former. Besides it is necessary to mean, that your workshop is necessary not only for works with radio-electronic devices and your designs, but also for the general(common) homeworks. Modern apartments, as a rule, do not leave to us an opportunity to equip the workplace in a separate room, therefore it is possible to use any free corner. The folding plate with a mirror well masks a corner and justifies his(its) existence even in the closed kind. 

For the equipment of a corner two plywood plates 250E173 sm by thickness 19<< 882,5E62 sm thickness of 4 mm are required; two rods 1E1 sm, length 2,15 m, two rectangular rods 2E1 sm, length 2,15 mm, and also @>O;L=K5 loops in length of 2,4 m, a magnetic latch, screws, an emery paper, H?0B;Q2:0 for a tree, a first coat, >1>9=K9 and joiner's glues, a mirror 71,5E53,5 sm, wall-paper and a border. From the tool and devices it is necessary to have: the drill, =>6>2:8 on a tree and metal, for has spent on drink a saw H;8F>2, a drill, a ruler, a square, a plumb, a pencil, H?0B5;L, a brush. Fastening ?>;>: to a wall, a lay-out C3>;:0 and the bottom case - business of your imagination and skill. It is possible and to refuse the top locker (which doors it is possible to paste over with wall-paper of a room). 

For accommodation of the tool it is possible to use rods with constant magnets or a self-made set from magnetic door latches. 

Almost in each house there are niches in which it is possible to place similar workshop. The board of power supplies provides an adjustable pressure(voltage) constant (straightened) and variable 0-250 In (" ), and also a feed(meal) for a soldering iron and any necessary pressure(voltage) of a direct current for a feed(meal) of any designs. It is necessary to provide and local illumination, is desirable with a fluorescent lamp on an arm, and for people with weakened or lacks of sight and with the big magnifier fixed also on an arm. 

Bolts, nuts, store(keep) a various trifle, fixture in plastic banks which are rolled in the covers fixed on the bottom surface of the top shelf. Lockers above and below spare parts, an electrodrill (a small boring machine), " contain in themselves, various files, a fret saw, a small manual drill, various capacities with varnishes, glues, solvents and chloric iron. A special place allocate for measuring devices, separately place a small vice with an anvil, the big vice, etc. 

On a surface of a table equip the special field covered with asbestos - for work with a soldering iron, acids and solvents. For especially fine details of one purpose(assignment) adapt plastic boxes for the cactuses, stuck together (fastened) in a case. For details of average size rectangular boxes from under sour cream which have very convenient sides which are well included in specially cut grooves well approach. Microcircuits, except for standard plastic boxes, it is convenient to store(keep) in the sheets of polyfoam enclosed in a box from under footwear. So, all basic advice(councils) are given, the everything else - business of your imagination, skill and skill.

The soldering.

We remind once again: the soldering iron - tool of the raised(increased) danger, therefore to address with it(him) it is necessary very cautiously. Process of the soldering represents diffusion of one substance (metal) in another at high temperature that provides after hardening solder mechanical durability and high M;5:B@>?@>2>4=>ABL connections. One of metals is the conductor, the second - solder. 

Solders are different: soft and firm, i.e. fusible and refractory. Solders concern to the first with temperature of fusion 4>400°!, having rather small mechanical durability (resistance to break up to 7:3/mm 2). To refractory solders with temperature of fusion from above 500°!, connections creating high mechanical durability (resistance to break up to 50:3/mm 2) concern. Lack of such solders is that they demand high temperature of heating and though durability of such soldering is rather high, intensive heating can lead to to rather undesirable consequences: it is possible to overheat an expensive detail and to put her(it) out of action (for example the transistor or a microcircuit) or "to release(let off)", for example, steel detail (spring) . radio electronics more often apply soft solders, in particular solder !-61 which contains 61 % of lead, 38 % of tin and 1 % of various additives. The heated up metals actively enter reaction of oxidation with oxygen of air, therefore the heated up metal should something be protected. 

Besides there are fluxes(dental abscesses) which do not demand preliminary >1;C6820=8O details, but in electronics of them apply seldom and only in cases when it is not required electric contact after the soldering for even the smallest rests of such flux(dental abscess) are capable to cause oxidation of details and infringement of electric contact (break of an electric circuit). Therefore at installation of the radio-electronic equipment apply, as a rule, the fluxes(dental abscesses) protecting metal from oxidation (formations(educations) >:8A=>9 a film possessing high electric resistance). 

This role at the soldering in electronics carries out either rosin, or a solution of rosin in spirit. Such flux(dental abscess) name neutral because it(he) does not contain in the structure acids, alkalis. Besides the flux(dental abscess) raises fluidity of the fused solder therefore after cooling a place of the soldering strong connection turns out. 

The strong soldering with an equal surface of the stiffened solder can be received, having applied the liquid flux(dental abscess) prepared from 20 3 of pure(clean) rosin crushed in a powder, dissolved at 35-40 3 pure(clean) spirit, turpentine or acetone. It is practically established, that at the specified proportion of components the flux(dental abscess) at the soldering does not give flashes ?0@>2 solvent. This flux(dental abscess) should be stored(kept) in ?C7K@L:5 with ?@8B5@B>9 a fuse .;O a liquid flux(dental abscess) it is not recommended to apply the rosin intended for =0B8@0=8O A:@8?8G=>3> of a bow, differently the soldering can be polluted with extraneous impurity. As a flux(dental abscess) at the soldering of electronic circuits in case of emergency it is possible to use also A<>;:>9 a pine or a fur-trees. 

To speed up process of the soldering and to raise(increase) quality of connections it is possible, having applied instead of rosin glyceric paste. With the help of paste it is possible to solder details from the diversified metals and alloys even without preliminary 70G8AB:8 and ;C65=8O, that is especially convenient in remote places. It is easy to prepare for glyceric paste itself. Structure its(her) following: 48 % 25@5B5==>3> oils, 12%?G5;8=>3> wax, 15 % of light rosin, 15 % of glycerin, 10 % of the sated water solution of chloride zinc. Making glyceric paste, all time is necessary to warm up her(it). First @0A?;02;ONB rosin, then add 25@5BQ==>5 oil, wax, glycerin and in last turn chloride zinc. 

There is one more recipe of a flux(dental abscess), suitable for the soldering without preliminary 70;C6820=8O. This flux(dental abscess) can be used for the soldering of the majority meeting in practice of the radio fan of metals and alloys: copper, a brass, bronze, iron, various AB0;59, including corrosion-proof, zinc, white 65AB8, =8E@><0, :>=AB0=B0=0, <0=30=8=0, nickel, it is especial conclusions of quartz with careful washing by water and spirit, etc. 

Rather strong connection turns out at the soldering of nickel and wires from alloys of high resistance which at application of usual fluxes(dental abscesses) cannot be soldered. At the soldering with this flux(dental abscess) preliminary >1;C6820=85 conductors or a detail it is not required. The flux(dental abscess) will consist from 73 ml of spirit (rectificate or AK@5F), 20 3 rosin, 5 3 muriatic aniline, 2 3 B@8MB0=>;0<8=0. "@8MB0=>;0<8= it is possible to replace with 20 drops of a solution of ammonia (liquid ammonia). Rosin dissolve in 50 ml of spirit, and in the rests of spirit of 23 ml dissolve muriatic aniline. Both solutions mix and add B@8MB0=>;0<8=

As the paste representing an alloy of rosin with the one-basic fat acids, it is possible to make a flux(dental abscess) under the following recipe: a stearin acid 30 3, ?0;L<8B8=>20O an acid-25 3, >;58=>20O an acid-45 3, rosin of-100. 

To alloy the specified components follows in a glass flask (a water bath) at B5

High activity of the flux(dental abscess) made under this recipe, enables to carry out(spend) the soldering without preliminary 70;C6820=8O. With the help of this flux(dental abscess) it is possible to solder ;8F5=4@0B (a set of very thin wires, diameter about 0,01 mm), conclusions >AB5:;>20==KE resistors and a wire in enamel isolation even without especially careful 70G8AB:8.

electric glue

It is known, that some metals difficultly give in to the soldering, and the some people are not soldered at all. Therefore in cases when the soldering is impossible, and electric connection is necessary, necessary to use sticky electrowire weight. I want to tell about structure and manufacturing techniques and uses of such weight.

At repair of electronic hours "Electronics - 2" bad contact of petals to current-carrying pathes has been found out in several conclusions of digital indicator IVL 1-7/5 on glass. To solder them, certainly, it is impossible, therefore there was only one output(exit) — to paste. In the recipes of electrowire glues described in directories scarce components, such as powder silver and polymeric binding are used. Therefore it was necessary to develop the recipe of weight from accessible components.

Copper sawdust, graphite of the most thin grinding and binding substance are necessary for its(her) preparation, for example, a varnish or glue. Copper sawdust is easy for receiving a fine file from a piece of copper. If there is no graphite, it is necessary to take an electrobrush from any collector electric motor and a knife to plane the necessary quantity(amount) of a graphite powder. Binding it should be possible more liquid.

First mix two parts (on weight) a copper powder and one part of graphite, then add binding up to a required consistence — and the weight is ready. As binding substance I tried to use a cedar varnish for artworks. It(he) rather liquid and at drying does not isolate conducting particles one from another. It is possible to apply and other oil varnish or glue, preliminary having diluted his(its) solvent.

Before to apply conducting weight on a under repair product, it is necessary to test all over again on any sample durability of a glutinous seam and his(its) conductivity. If binding the varnish is chosen, durability of a seam, certainly, will be not so high.

101 ADVICE OF MASTER homemade

1. If 75=:>20BL a manual drill an aperture under the secret head of the screw in viscous sheet metal (copper, aluminium, soft duralumin) thickness is less than third of diameter of a drill and thus to fix a detail clamps on a plate from textolite or a firm tree the conic deepening will turn out accurater.

2. At =0@570=88 grooves in soft metals (for example, in aluminium) it is necessary to be limited to cutting of a groove only the first tap. In such aperture the screw is kept more strongly.

3. The groove after trimming the screw or H?8;L:8 will be easy for restoring if preliminary to screw on them a die or a nut. Having cut off or having bitten off :CA0G:0<8 superfluous, the end of a carving detail saw round a file, and then screw together a die (nut) - the groove is restored.

4. That the groove cut by a tap in a deaf(an indistinct) aperture, was pure(clean), it is necessary to fill in an aperture preliminary the fused paraffin and a groove to cut, when it(he) will harden.

5. To wash up utensils in which there was a kerosene, it is possible limy milk: into a cleared vessel pour a little slaked to exhaust and, frequently shaking up, fill up to the top with water. In some hours contents pour out, rinse water and repeat still time. Cleaning will be faster, if in utensils at agitation to add large sand.

6. If after work with kerosene, solvents, a paint of a hand have a specific smell the best way to get rid from him(it) - to wash up hands water with mustard.

7. Fine washers and cartridges it is more convenient @0AA25@;820BL, accurately having clamped them in a cartridge(patron) of a drill; a drill in this case clamp in a vice. In the rest process of drilling does not differ from usual. This way reduces probability of damage of a detail.

8. In notches of a file particles of processable metal if a file preliminary to rub <5;>< or charcoal will not jam or to moisten with spirit.

9. Apertures bored through in a thin metal sheet will turn out more purely(cleanly) if, clamping sheet in vice, to enclose(lay) under him(it) wooden 1@CA>:.

10. Nickelized surfaces of various subjects can be cleaned ashes from cigarettes, =0AK?02 it(him) on damp B@O?>G:C.

11. Products from copper and a brass keep the shine if them carefully to rub with wax.

12. Metal details of furnish will not lose shine if them to cover F0?>=;0:>< or colorless nail polish.

13. Bronze details can be cleaned a crude potato or the rigid hair brush moistened with hot vinegar. After that the detail is necessary for wiping a soft fabric,

14. To freshen a surface of small products from copper it is possible, having boiled them during 30 mines in a solution :0;LF8=8@>20==>9 soda (40 3/;).

15. The chassis, made of aluminium or his(its) alloys, it is possible to make slightly matte if to process in 5 %-=>< a solution caustic =0B@0 within 5 minutes. Preliminary the chassis carefully 70G8I0NB fine H:C@:>9 also wash out in soap water.

16. To freshen aluminium chassis, and screens it is possible for the panel, having washed out their rigid hair brush in a warm water solution of a laundry soap.

17. Notches at files are unary and cross (double). For processing firm metals the cross notch, for soft - unary is more suitable.

18. If wooden handles at the metalwork tool slightly to burn on fire (before dimness) it is possible to prevent occurrence of callouses or water bubbles on hands during processing metals (or, at least, to be slow their formation(education)).

19. Screws and the nails polished with soap or greased with vegetable oil, will more easy enter even the firmest wood.

20. At edge(territory) of a board the crack if wood in a place 701820=8O a nail preliminary to condense with a metal punch is not formed, and an edge of a nail relevantly completely to grind off.

21. That at sawing up of plywood the surface of her(it) was not chopped off also edges(territories) turned out smooth, it is necessary to moisten a sheet on a line has drunk water.

22. If the length of a screw is less than thickness of a detail which it is necessary :@5?8BL, the screw in it(her) can "be drowned", having drilled in a detail not through aperture on diameter H;O?:8 a screw and through - on diameter of the screw.

23. For a long time the screwed screw in wood is easier for turning out if to heat up it(him), having pressed to H;O?:5 a sting of an electric soldering iron.

24. The cracks which have appeared on a surface of wooden cases, it is possible to disguise beer wax then carefully to wipe the processed places a woolen fabric.

25. Quality <0;O@=>9 brushes depends basically on a kind and a grade of hair. The best do(make) of a pork spine bristle, second-grade - from a mix of a bristle and a horsehair, the most low-grade - from one horsehair. Brushes from substitutes - a kapron fibre - cannot go in any comparison with natural.

26. At a choice of a brush it is necessary to pay attention to length of its(her) working part. If hair too long, a paint will not be possible, to shade, especially, to put an equal layer. The brush with short hair instead of shading will tear off a paint, leaving traces. Only in that case when the length of a working part of a brush is equal A5 to diameter, elasticity of hair and pressing of a hand are counterbalanced and uniformity of drawing of a layer of a paint is reached(achieved).

27. If the brush is made with the length of hair exceeding diameter of a bunch(beam), it is not necessary to cut off her(it) at all. A working part usually "shorten" by >12O7K20=8O severe threads or a twine. It does(makes) a brush of more durable. That >12O7:0 has not slipped (a brush will be narrowed by the end as inside a working part there was a free space), it is necessary to put inside of a working part a fuse (wooden or rubber) the same diameter, as well as the handle, and on height same, as well as assumed(prospective) >12O7:0.

28. Products and from light wood can "be freshened" details the next way. In pure(clean) utensils kindle a little white stearin (for example a slice A25G:8) and add to it(him) the same quantity(amount) of gasoline (observing safety measures - close there should not be open fire) that homogeneous, not so dense mix has turned out. With the cooled down mix with the help of a tampon from a linen fabric rub a surface of wood, and through 2-3 G polish with its(her) woolen fabric.

29. Density of the prepared paint can be estimated if to drip on a piece of a pure(clean) dry glass one drop of a paint and to put glass, vertically. The paint of normal density flows down on glass on 35-50 mm. Strokes of a paint of such density, left by a brush, should spread completely approximately through 10 mines after drawing.

30. That the oil paint at storage did not dry up and that on it(her) the film was not formed, it is necessary to put on a surface of a paint a circle from a dense paper and to fill with his(its) thin layer of drying oil.

31. The sheet AB5:;>B5:AB>;8B0 can be split from a corner not sharp knife and to divide(share) it(him) into two thin sheets. To such reception well gives in and D>;L38@>20==K9 AB5:;>B5:AB>;8B.

32. Mica after two B5@<>C40@>2 and dryings is easily split on a plate by thickness up to 0,02 mm. For this purpose the mineral needs to be heated up up to 400-600 With, there and then to cool in water and to repeat operation.

34. At manufacturing and repair of various equipment and the tool, it is especial soldering irons, sometimes it happens it is necessary to bend mica with small radius of a bend. That mica began more elastic, did not break and was not crumbled, she(it) is necessary for calcinating, having heated up to light yellow color and to give it(her) slowly to cool down.

35. Pasting diverse plastic, for example an organic glass or polystyrene with celluloid, is complicated with that 48E;>@MB0=, being solvent of an organic glass, does not dissolve celluloid, and acetone does not dissolve organic glass. The mix of the glue prepared on acetone, with glue on 48E;>@MB0=5 does not provide high durability of pasting. The durability of the stuck together joint equal to durability of stuck together materials, it is possible to receive, if a celluloid detail to grease 0F5B>=>2K< with glue, and a detail from an organic glass or polystyrene - 48E;>@MB0=>2K<. The ambassador ?>4AKE0=8O gluing each detail grease with once again corresponding glue and press one to another. Final drying make 4-6 G at room temperature.

36. Old rubber products can return softness and elasticity, having shipped them on 20-30 mines in a weak solution of liquid ammonia. It is possible to ship a rubber product on 1-2 G in pure(clean) kerosene. Thus it is necessary to remember, that long stay of rubber in kerosene can not only soften her(it), but also significant increase in volume. The softened rubber needs to be washed out in warm water with a washing-up liquid and to wipe.

37. Promotion of a crack in organic glass will be suspended, if at the end of a crack to drill an aperture in diameter of 2-3 mm.

38. From rubber a proside from ?C7K@L:>2 with medicines convenient legs - shock-absorbers for cases of devices or beds turn out. For this purpose in an installation site drill a through or deaf(indistinct) aperture in diameter of 12 mm and :@5?OB a fuse on friction or with the help of glue.

Other variant of fastening of such fuse - the screw or a screw with a washer is possible(probable). In this case the fuse is put H;O?:>9 to a plane of the case or a bed.

39. Round glasses can be cut out if to attach .@>;8: from AB5:;>@570 to one 3C1:5 served the term HB0=35=F8@:C;O. Another 3C1:0 through a washer and a rubber lining leans(bases) on glass. A roller some times ?@>:0BK20NB on a circle then usual AB5:;>@57>< carry out(spend) 3-4 tangents facilitating A:0;K20=85 glasses on borders of cuts. Sharp edges 70G8I0NB a file or an abrasive stone under water (or under a jet of water).

40. "Obstinate" :>;?0G>: on a tube with glue it is possible >B25@=CBL with the help of a plastic linen clothespin. Same purpose can be achieved if to wrap up :>;?0G>: an emery paper or to put on hands leather gloves.

41. Glue  can be applied to clearing strongly polluted phonograph records of a dust. Glue render a soft brush, a gauze tampon or 3C1:>9 on all working zone of a plate. The surface of a plate is badly moistened with glue, therefore during drying it is necessary to pound periodically glue on all surface, achieving a uniform covering. Through 15-20 mines render the second layer of glue, and through 20-30 mines on a surface of a plate the elastic transparent film is formed. A film accurately separate an edge of the razor at edge(territory) of a plate and remove entirely, from all surface. Thus together with a film all particles of a dust leave also.

4-39. Pasting polythene can be made glue $. Stuck together surfaces need to be washed out preliminary carefully 25 %-s' solution of chromic anhydride to remove very thin fat film from a surface of polythene then glue $ well "seizes" stuck together surfaces.

40. Kapron can be stuck together the concentrated hydrochloric or ant acids.

41. Mica stick together a weak solution of gelatin. If to durability A:;59:8 increased requirements to gelatin add chromic alum are showed.

42. Split >A5;>: it is possible to stick together shellac, and connection will not concede on durability to an integral stone. First of all pieces of a stone are necessary for cleaning and removing carefully from places of a break all rests of oil, heating up pieces on the heated thick metal sheet. All parts which should adjoin, carefully strew shellac and again heat up until shellac will not fuse and will not fill in time. The flame should not concern pieces, differently they can burst in the other place. For the same reason they should not be overheated too. When shellac will fuse, pieces put(fold) together, press one to another and clamp a clamp while they will not cool down,

43. Good, "thin" H?0:;52:C it is possible to prepare on 2>4>M==>9 to a paint, adding in it(her) <5;:>?@>A5O==K9 swept or a tooth-powder (it is possible to use a deposit of for a long time stored(kept) paint). To render H?0:;52:C it is necessary a thin layer. It is convenient to use for this purpose metal H?0B5;L. Steel products it is possible H?0:;520BL only after a preliminary first coat of their surface as 2>4>M==0O the basis causes intensive corrosion of the unprotected surface of metal.

44. Rough, but strong H?0:;52:C it is possible to prepare, 70<5A82 alabaster on a varnish for a covering of floors.

45. If in a detail it is required to saw through a narrow groove (for example, H;8F in the head of the screw), and there is no special tool, for example H;8F>2:8, similar operation can be executed with the help usual =>6>2:8 for metal, a little having finished its(her) cloth. For this purpose on a rotating grinding circle from both parties(sides) of a cloth in regular intervals on all length grind off lateral edges 7C1L52 before full disappearance of "divorce". Correctly ground off cloth should have from both parties(sides) equal brilliant surfaces and thickness on the part of a notch, on 0,1-0,3 mm big, than at a non-working edge.

46. Convenient G5@B8;:C it is possible to make of a hour screw-driver in which the working part is replaced with a piece of a thick sewing needle.

47. '5@B8;:0 from >AB@>70B>G5==>3> copper ?@CB:0 it is convenient at a marking of ferrous metals.

48. The more firmly the material which needs to be drilled, the big should be a corner of sharpening of a drill: for a tree - 60, for metals - more than 90, for a glass (and firm AB0;59)-120 °.

49. If the thin drill is badly fixed in a cartridge(patron) of a drill, it is necessary to reel up on a shaft of a drill copper ;C65=K9 a wire in diameter of 0,4-0,6 mm - densely, a coil to a coil, in one layer, and ?@>;0OBL.

50. The mill from a desktop sharpener for pencils (it is sold and separately from a sharpener) can be used with success for @0AB>G:8 the big apertures in tree and plastic which were drilled, for example, on F8@:C;L=> to the conductor (item 5-12). For work of her(it) fix in a cartridge(patron) of an electrodrill.

51. The roller from AB5:;>@570 is suitable for an engraving on glass, metal, plastic if it(him) to fix in a tip of a drill with the help 45@602:8 for abrasive disks or to fix on an axis of anyone small <>B>@G8:0. At sufficient capacity of the motor a roller easily ?@>@5705B flew down on the big depth.

52. The needle from a medical syringe will help to restore a seam in a remote place. A needle insert into an aperture of a seam outside, and a usual sewing needle from within to the touch C?8@0NB in A:>A at an end face of a medical needle. A sewing needle squeeze out a needle from a syringe and easily stretch a sewing needle and a thread.

53. At absence of a micrometer to define(determine) diameter of a wire it is possible, having reeled up on a round core or a pencil some tens coils of a wire and having divided(shared) length of winding (in millimeters) on number of coils. At careful winding and sufficient length of her(it) to measure diameter of a wire in such a way it is possible to within 0.01 mm.

54. Knifes, chisels and other cutting tool are more easy and fastly sharpened if preliminary to lower(omit) an edge on half an hour in a weak solution of table salt, and 1@CA>: slightly to moisten with kerosene.

55. The various (not too flying) liquids spent by small dozes, it is convenient to hold near at hand in small polyethylene bottles with =028=G820NI59AO a fuse in which bore through or pierce a small aperture. Having turned a bottle downwards a fuse and having compressed his(its) walls, squeeze out the necessary doze of a liquid, for example, for degreasing a surface, for wetting =0640G=>3> 1@CA:0 or a tampon, etc.

56. If it is necessary to make 70?@5AA>2:C one detail for another and so that the part of a detail acted for the set length, it is possible to take advantage of a technological (auxiliary) tube. Internal diameter of a tube should correspond(meet) to diameter 70?@5AA>2K205<>9 to a detail, and length of a tube - to length acting the ambassador 70?@5AA>2:8 to a part of a detail. A technological tube put on on 70?@5AA>2K205 a detail and make 70?@5AA>2:C in a vice (against the stop 3C1:8 a vice in a technological tube) .<5AB> a technological tube it is possible to take advantage of a set of washers of suitable diameter - so that the length of a set was equal to length of an acting part of a detail.

57. The household vacuum cleaner can be applied to clearing the equipment of a dust, for >BA>A0 solder or to use it(him) as the pump. In these cases the working tool connect to a branch pipe of a vacuum cleaner a flexible hose in diameter «-10 mm by means of an adapter made of a rubber fuse (under diameter of a branch pipe of a vacuum cleaner) in which the aperture is drilled and the piece of a metal tube (under diameter of a fenny flexible hose) is densely inserted.

58. Marks of conductors on the printed-circuit-board and on the circuit will facilitate installation, adjustment(option) and search of possible(probable) malfunctions. Numbers of conductors on the printed-circuit-board are the best way for pickling together with conductors.

59. The convenient scraper for retouching put by ink or =8B@>:@0A:>9 figure of the printed-circuit-board will turn out, if into a clip F0=3>2>3> a pencil to insert a slice of an edge of a safety razor. Want to work as slightly bent edge - choose a grip with. Odd number 3C1>:.

60. If by development of figure of the printed-circuit-board it is difficult to do without crossing printed conductors one of conductors break off, and on the ends of break provide contact platforms with apertures in a payment. After manufacturing the printed-circuit-board in apertures of contact platforms solder the wire crosspiece.

61. For drawing figure on a payment it is possible to use silicate glue which then is dried under a lamp of 4-5 minutes.

62. Instead of a paint as a blanket at etching in a nitric or hydrochloric acid it is possible to take advantage of a solution of rosin in MB8;>2>< spirit. 10 minutes there are enough for drying figure.

63. For removal >:8A=>9 a film from a foil and for its(her) degreasing it is convenient to use an ink student's elastic band.

64. Apertures of small diameter in thin payments can be drilled a needle for sewing machines. Thus at a needle break off CH:> and sharpen cutting edges, as at a usual drill. To work as such "drill" follows at the raised(increased) revolutions of a cartridge(patron) of a drill.

65. Etching printed-circuit-boards in domestic conditions can be made in a polyethylene bag. For this purpose place a payment in a bag and fill in a solution of chloric iron. That sharp corners the payment has not damaged(injured) a bag, them round off. Shaking a bag during etching, mix a solution. If it is necessary to poison(persecute) at the raised(increased) temperature of a solution, a bag place in a vessel with hot water, keeping for edges(territories).

66. Etching the printed-circuit-board in the concentrated solution of nitric acid borrows(occupies) from 1 up to 5 mines, but demands care. After etching the printed-circuit-board carefully wash out water with soap.

67. With bilateral D>;L38@>20==>9 preparations at performance of unilateral printed circuit wiring it is expedient to remove(take off) the second layer of a foil (with the purpose of economy of a poisoning(persecuting) solution). For this purpose an edge of a knife separate a corner of a foil and with the help of a tweezers or flat-nose pliers remove all layer.

68. Time of etching of a payment depends on intensity of an exchange of a solution at a surface of a foil. Therefore for acceleration of etching the vessel should be shaken periodically.

69. If suitable vessel for etching to find it is not possible, it is possible to act(arrive) as follows. At cutting preparation of a payment provide an allowance of 6-8 mm on perimeter. After drawing figure on a payment on edges(territories) of preparation on the part of a foil form a side in height of 10-15 mm of plasticine. In formed "vessel" fill in a solution of chloric iron. Drilling of apertures for the soldering of details in this case carry out after etching.

70. To clear to a ditch in which etching was repeatedly carried out(was repeatedly spent), it is possible with the help of electrolit of alkaline accumulators: to a ditch at some o'clock fill in a solution then wash out in flowing water,

71. Check of all elements before installation guarantees serviceability and successful adjustment(option) of the device. The majority of elements is possible to check up a usual tester, and condensers of small capacity (unit of picofarads) at absence of a measuring instrument capacit - with the help of headphones. The condenser charged from a source of a pressure(voltage), unload on resistance of phones and on presence of click in phones judge his(its) validity. The more the capacity of the condenser (or a pressure(voltage)), the will be louder a sound of the category. At such check the pressure(voltage) not above nominal for the given type of condensers is necessary to submit.

72. When there is no an opportunity to replace this or that microcircuit on identical, but is suitable on functional purpose(assignment) in the other case, it is possible to make a :>;>4:C-adapter from D>;L38@>20==>3> AB5:;>B5:AB>;8B0 or 35B8=0:A0. A microcircuit mount on a :>;>4:5-adapter, and then an adapter connect contact racks to the printed-circuit-board. Contact racks produce of 0,4-0,5 mm from pieces of a wire in diameter.

73. If in a ready payment assembly percussion caps are not established, and near at hand they are not present, for preservation of printed circuit wiring at selection of elements in necessary assembly points solder pieces copper ;C65=>3> wires in diameter of 0,5-0,6 mm, and to them - ?>418@05 elements. Upon termination of adjustment(option) pieces of a wire delete and solder the picked up element.

74. The electrosoldering iron of pistol type (220 In, 50 B) is faster warmed up, if in parallel the switch to solder diode D226 or 7. At @07 contacts of the switch the soldering iron is not switched off, and the degree of his(its) heating is only reduced. Similar reception can be used at work with any soldering iron, ?8B05 an alternating current. It is enough to build in the microbutton in a support for a soldering iron and to include in parallel it(her) the diode.

75. To have an opportunity to put forward a core or to replace his(its) new in soldering iron !-40 or in the friend, a similar design, it is impossible to suppose jammings of a core in the case of a soldering iron because of formation(education) of scale. For this purpose each time before inclusion of a soldering iron it is necessary ?0AA0B860<8 to turn a core in the case.

76. Pull out the burned core from the case of a soldering iron by means of the simple adaptation. In a steel rod thickness of 3-4 mm and the size approximately 40%80 the mm drill an aperture on diameter of a core. To Planck clamp in a vice, remove from a casing of an electrosoldering iron a fixing ring on the part of a core and insert a core into an aperture of a rod against the stop a casing in a rod. Then, having grasped a core ?0AA0B860<8 (it is better a cutting edge), ticks or :CA0G:0<8, pull out it(him) as a nail.

77. Bowls on 60;5 a soldering iron complicate >B5:0=85 solder in a place of the soldering, worsen thermal contact to it(him) and, hence, slow down process of the soldering. To give 60;C a soldering iron the necessary form follows :>2:>9 and it is possible to correct a file only a little. 0:;5? reduces intensity of dissolution of copper in solder and slows down formation(education) of bowls.

78. The groove (has spent on drink) on 60;5 a soldering iron gives a prize at performance of the some people ?0O;L=KE works: the quantity(amount) of solder, C45@68205<>3> 60;>< increases, and is facilitated ;C65=85 conclusions of elements.

79. " 0O;L=CN an acid " (chloride zinc) prepare by dissolution of metal zinc in a hydrochloric acid at the rate of 412 3/; (at density of a hydrochloric acid of 1,19 3/sm3). An acid cautiously and gradually pour in in utensils with slices of zinc, and the level should not exceed 3/4 depths of utensils. Final dissolution of zinc in an acid define(determine) on the termination(discontinuance) of allocation ?C7K@L:>2 hydrogen. The received solution of chloride zinc. Assert up to a transparency and accurately merge in ?C7K@5:.

80. Instead of " ?0O;L=>9 acids " it is possible to use the flux(dental abscess) made of equal parts (on weight) chloride ammonium and glycerin. Thus the place of the soldering is not oxidized. The flux(dental abscess) is suitable and for the soldering of stainless steel.

81. F5B>=>-:0=8D>;L=K9 the flux(dental abscess) does not concede on quality A?8@B>-:0=8D>;L=>. It(he) well moistens a surface and easily becomes numb in a backlash between ?0O5 details. Therefore at absence of spirit it is possible to prepare for a flux(dental abscess) and on acetone, having taken it(him) in the same relative quantity(amount). However it is necessary to remember, that acetone is toxic and possesses a sharp unpleasant smell, therefore to work with such flux(dental abscess) it is possible only at good ventilation of a premise(room).

82. To store(keep) liquid and ?>;C684:89 a flux(dental abscess) (A?8@B>-:0=8D>;L=K9, " ?0O;L=CN an acid ", etc.) it is convenient in a polyethylene butterdish, E>1>B>: which it is closed by a special fuse. With the help of such butterdish it is possible to put easily and quickly required quantity(amount) of a flux(dental abscess) on a place of the soldering. Thus the flux(dental abscess) is spent much more economically, evaporation of his(its) solvent decreases, the soldering turns out purer(cleaner) and accurate.

83. To solder the ball-bearing to a flange it is possible with the help of solder ! 61 and a flux(dental abscess) of the following structure: spirit MB8;>2K9-73 ml, rosin - 20 3, muriatic aniline - 5 3, B@8MB0=>;0<8= - 23. Before final assembly of unit of a detail it is necessary to degrease, after the soldering - to wash out unit in gasoline and the bearing to grease.

82. For merging wires from alloys of high resistance (=8E@><, :>=AB0=B0=, <0=30=8=, etc.) it is possible to use the simple way which is not demanding any special tool. Wires in a place of their connection 70G8I0NB also braid. Then pass(miss) through them a current of such force that the junction made red-hot. On this place a tweezers put a slice ;O?8A0, which at heating @0A?;02;O5BAO therefore in a junction good electric contact is formed.

83. Thin copper wires can be welded in a flame of a spirit-lamp or a match. For this purpose them 70G8I0NB on 20 mm, put(fold), accurately braid and heat up until the ball of the fused metal giving reliable contact is formed.

84. To tin an aluminium surface before the soldering it is easier, if her(it) preliminary ><54=8BL. For this purpose the place of the soldering 70G8I0NB and accurately is rendered on him(it) with two - three drops of the sated solution copper :C?>@>A0. Further to an aluminium detail connect a negative pole of a source of a direct current, and to a positive pole attach a piece of a copper wire which end lower(omit) in a drop :C?>@>A0 so that the wire did not concern some aluminium. After a while on a surface of a detail the layer of red copper which after washing and dryings tin in the usual way settles. As a source of a current it is possible to use a battery from a pocket lantern.

85. The thermal mode of low-power transistors can be facilitated, =0452 on the metal case of the transistor B>@ ("10@0=:C") from a spiral executed from a copper, brass or bronze wire in diameter of 0,5-1,0 mm.

86. A good lamellar radiator can be the metal case of the device or his(its) internal partitions.

87. Flatness of a contact platform check, having greased with its(her) any dye and having applied(put) the basis of the transistor which will be :@5?8BL. Acting sites of a platform will paint 4>=KH:> cases of the transistor.

88. For maintenance of good thermal contact it is necessary a surface of the transistor, adjoining to a radiator, to grease with non-drying greasing, for example A8;8:>=>2>9. It will allow to lower thermal resistance of contact in one and a half - two time.

89. It is possible to drape the forward panel of acoustic system the mesh synthetic material used at sewing of raincoats "1>;>=LO". It(he) can be painted =8B@>M<0;LN.

90. Traces of flies on scales, panels and other details are very difficult for removing gasoline, spirit and other solvents. At the same time these of a stain completely disappear if to wipe the polluted places B@O?>G:>9 or the cotton wool moistened with a saliva.

91. If before unscrewing the screw filled with a paint, to warm up his(its) head a powerful soldering iron, the paint is softened, that allows to turn out the screw, not being afraid to spoil H;8F on his(its) head. Help in a similar situation and some drops of acetone or the wadded tampon moistened with acetone or solvent and put on the head of the screw or a nut for some time.

92. To take metal ferromagnetic sawdust from a backlash of magnetic system of a dynamic loudspeaker it is possible if to fill a backlash with rubber glue. After drying glue his(its) film together with sawdust easily leaves a tweezers. If it is required, operation repeat.

93. To clean a collector of the electric motor it is the best way an ordinary school elastic band for deleting ink as even the most fine-grained H:C@:0 or pumice leave scratchs. Cleaning make as follows. Gasoline wash off a dirty and oil from a collector and dry it(him). Then press an elastic band to a collector as an electrobrush, and a rotor turn. After reception of a brilliant surface a collector wash out pure(clean) gasoline.

94. At winding the coil of inductance by a wire in enamel isolation it is necessary to take into account, that impurity of hands can considerably lower good quality of the coil, therefore a wire at winding it is necessary to hold through a rag of a cotton fabric. It is even better to make winding in thin cotton gloves.

95. To warn formation(education) "10@0H:>2" on a wire, it is necessary to put on before winding of the coil a wire ?>;8E;>@28=8;>2CN a tube in diameter 4-5 and length 100-150 mm. Under weight of a tube >1<>B>G=K9 the wire stretches, that does not give it(him) to be braided and at the same time does not prevent winding.

96. For shielding planimetric coils, high-frequency transformers and throttles it is possible to use cases from faulty starters for fluorescent lamps. Through an aperture in 4>=KH:5 it is possible to conduct fine tuning of the coil of inductance.

97. On frequencies 10 MHz good shielding effect copper film thickness of only 0,1 mm is higher gives, therefore for these frequencies the screen can be soldered from D>;L38@>20==>3> 87>;OF8>==>3> a material.

98. For fixing position :0@1>=8;L=KE cores in the coil it is possible to use a strip from a polyethylene film of suitable thickness, having lowered(omitted) her(it) in a skeleton before 228=G820=85< the core. The film will fill in a backlash in a groove and will not allow the core to move spontaneously.

99. Losses in a untying R!-circuit will essentially decrease, if the resistor to replace with the semi-conductor diode.

100. If it is necessary to unload electrolytic the condenser of the big capacity, it is not necessary to make short circuit as internal contact of a conclusion can be broken. To unload the condenser it is necessary through the resistor, choosing his(its) resistance R such that time of the category was about one second, i.e. R H " 200/! (resistance in kilo-Om, capacity in microfarads).


I promised you hundred one advice(council). Hundred you have already read, and hundred first:

1.      Do not think, that, having studied even one thousand advice(councils), it is possible to count itself the master. Only experience, patience and persistence will learn you to craft.

2.      Difficulties and failures are known even to the greatest masters. And the main difference between the bad and good master that bad recedes before failures, and good forces failures to recede before the will.

3.      Do not undertake to build the racing automobile before you will not learn to collect and assort bicycle <>B>@G8:.

4.      Be accustomed to work A?>@>, but not hasty.

5.      The bad tool of anything good not create.

6.      The good master can have any lacks, only inaccurate it(he) cannot be.

7.      Any thing can be truncated, but not everyone manages to be extended. Take your time!

8.      The best work - pure work.

9.      Do not hide the " industrial secrets " from friends.

10.  Always at first think, and then operate. And never operate before you will think.


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