Background information



  1. Galvanic cells and batteries

Most of the names produced in the country of the chemical elements - is often a three-digit number that indicates dimensions, and indirectly on the capacity of the larger element, the more it active substance stores energy. The main types of elements (presented in the table with increasing size) - 316, 332, 336, 343 and 373.
The following table 1 the following notation U - voltage (in volts) at the beginning level, Rn - load resistance (in ohms), for which all the data, I - discharge current (in mA), HDD cap - the capacity of the cell or battery ( in ampere-hours) in the second column contains the source dimensions (in millimeters), where there are two figures - the first mean diameter of the circular element and the second - his height, where there are three numbers, they usually refer to height, length and width, in the last column of the table shows the mass m (in grams).
Table 1. Galvanic cells

Title Dimensions mm U (B) Rh (Oм) I (мА) Емк (А-ч) m (г)
316 14 - 50 1,52 200 7,5 0,5 20
332 22 - 37 1,4 200 7 0,75 30
336 20 - 58 1,4 20 70 0,7 40
343 26 - 49 1,55 20 75 0,85 50
373 34 - 61 1, 20 75 3,2 110
3 - 336 63 - 22 - 67 4,2 60 70 0,7 200
"Крона ВЦ" 16 - 26 - 49 8,5 900 95 0,7 35


Note. Elements of the same size may differ slightly in design, as well as the type of the applied electrolyte. The table contains data for the elements with salt electrolyte, whose production was started many years ago and continues today. Some of these elements are, so to speak, their own names - 373-MARS, 373-ORION-M-343 Jupiter, 316-URAN, 3-336-PLANET.
An increasing proportion of manufactured power sources account for more modern chemical elements with an alkaline electrolyte. Their symbol is the letter A (A-316, A-332, A-336 and A-343), and the words "Prima" and "Salute" These elements are very different from the one of the most important characteristics - its capacity of about 2 times higher than what the elements with salt electrolyte. Along with the elements with a different electrolyte, there are two different designs. Conspicuous features of one of them - a glass of zinc in a dense cardboard case and he cap, which displays the "plus" in a different design "Plus" is displayed on the cover of a thin metal plate imprinted with the likeness of a cap, a "minus" in isolation gasket bottom. Elements of the same design may have a different electrolyte.
Battery 3-336 assembled from three elements connected in series 336, the battery "Krona VTs" (salt electrolyte) and "Corundum"
(alkaline electrolyte) collected from six small flat items.
Load resistance can be less than the specified value, ie the discharge current can be greater, but with increasing discharge current is sharply reduced capacity.
All the data in the table refer to the temperature of 4-20 degrees C, at a temperature of 40 degrees with a capacity of sources decreases tenfold.


Without exception, the derivatives unit (kilometer, centimeter, microamperes, etc.) are formed with prefixes (kilo, centi, micro and so on) that are added to the basic unit (meter, gram, ampere, farad and etc) and talk about what part of the basic unit of this derivative of the unit or how much you multiply the basic unit to obtain this derivative.

Table 2. Derived units

Название приставки Габариты  мм Соотношение с основной единицей
русское международное
тера Т T 10^12 = 1 000 000 000 000
гига Г G 10^9 = 1 000 000 000
мега М M 10^6 =1 000 000
кило к k 10^3 = 1000
гекто г h 10^2 = 100
дека де de 10
деци д d 10^-1 = 0,1
санти с c 10^-2 = 0,01
милли м m 10^-3 = 0,001
микро мк m 10^-6 = 0,000 001
нано н n 10^-9 = 0,000 000 001
пико п P 10^-12 = 0,000 000 000 001


   3. Resistivity

Table 3 shows the substances for which the resistivity taken to indicate the resistance of a conductor (in ohms) of length 1 m and cross section of 1 mm (diameter of wire about 1.13 mm).
Table 3. Resistivity

Серебро 0,0147 - 0,0175 Латунь 0,02
Медь 0,0154 - 0,0175 Никелин 0,42
Алюминий 0,0262 - 0,0278 Константан 0,49
Сталь 0,07 - 0,138 Чугун 0,4 - 0,5
Ртуть 0,95 - 0,96 Нихром 1 - 1,1
Вольфрам 0,05 - 0,06 Уголь (графит) 7,5

Note. Nichelino - an alloy of copper, zinc, nickel and iron, constantan - an alloy of copper and nickel, nichrome - an alloy of chromium, nickel and iron.
Table 4 shows the substances for which the resistivity taken to indicate the resistance of the cube (in ohms) with an edge of 1 cm.

Table 4. Resistivity

Бумага кабельная 10^11 - 10^14 Картон 10^10 - 10^12
Дерево парафинированное 10^3 - 10^4 Чернозем 10^3 - 2 x 10
Каучук 10^14 - 10^16 Раствор нашатыря 5% 11
Кварц плавленный 10^16 Раствор поваренной соли 5% 15
Масло трансформаторное 10^12 - 10^13 Раствор поваренной соли 25% 4,7
Песок 10^4 - 10^5 Чистый германий 50
Стекло 10^11 - 10^5 Чистый кремний 10^6
Фарфор 10^14 - 10^15 Медь 1,75 - 10^-6
Уголь (графит) 7,5 x 10^-4    


Note. All values are given for the temperature 20 degrees C, when heated opposition of the majority of substances listed in the tables is increased, in particular, resistance to silver, copper, aluminum and tungsten grows at about 0,4-0,45% when heated at each degree, resistance of constantan, coal, salt solutions and acids when heated slightly decreases.

4. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF COPPER winding wire in enamel insulation

Table 5.

Диаметр мм Сечение мм^2 Вес 100м (г) Сопротивление 1м при 20 град.С (Ом) Допустимый ток при норме 2 А/мм^2 (А) Допустимый ток при 3 А/мм^2 (А) Число витков на 1см^2 сечения обмотки
0,05 0,002 1,8 9,29 0,004 0,006 18000
0,08 0,005 4,6 3,63 0,01 0,015 8200
0,1 0,008 7,3 2,23 0,016 0,024 5700
0,12 0,011 10,4 1,55 0,02 0,03 4000
0,14 0,015 14 1,14 0,03 0,05 3200
0,16 0,02 18,3 0,87 0,04 0,06 2500
0,18 0,025 23,1 0,69 0,05 0,08 2070
0,2 0,031 28,5 0,56 0,06 0,09 1700
0,25 0,049 44,5 0,36 0,1 0,15 1140
0,31 0,075 68,8 0,23 0,15 0,22 750
0,35 0,096 87,4 0,18 0,2 0,3 580
0,41 0,132 120 0,13 0,26 0,4 440
0,44 0,152 138 0,115 0,3 0,45 390
0,49 0,188 171 0,093 0,4 0,6 310
0,55 0,238 215 0,074 0,48 0,72  260
0,64 0,321 291 0,055 0,65 1,0 190
0,8 0,503 445 0,035 1,0 1,5 125
1,0 0,785 707 0,022 1,5 2,2 85
1,2 1,31 1022 0,0155 2,6 4,0 60
1,56 1,9 1712 0,0092 3,8 6,0 35
2,02 3,2 2875 0,0055 6,5 9,5 ---


   5. Permittivity.

Table 6.

Воздух 1 Резина 2,6 - 3,5
Бумага сухая 3,5 Слюда 6 - 7,5
Воск 2,8 Стекло 5,5 - 6,5
Масло трансформаторное 2 - 3 Фарфор 5 - 7,5
Оргстекло 3 - 3,5 Титанат бария 8000


   6. Relative magnetic permeability

In the upper left-hand side of the table - paramagnetic substances, in the right - diamagnetic in the lower table - ferromagnetic substance material.
Table 6.

Воздух 1, 000 000 36 Графит 0,999 895
Олово 1, 000 00 4 Ртуть 0,999 975
Алюминий 1, 00000 23 Серебро 0,999 981
Платина 1, 000  36 Ртуть 0,999 989
Марганец 1, 000 4 Медь 0,999 991
Кобальт 174 Мягкая сталь 2200
Чугун неотожженный 240 Трансформаторная сталь 7500
Чугун отожженный 620 Вакуумное железо 13000
Никель 1120 Пермаллой 115000



7. Xc CAPACITY AND RESISTANCE INDUCTION XI at different frequencies f and for different values of the capacitance C and inductance L.

Table 7.

f 50 Гц 1000 Гц 20 кГц 200 кГц 10 мГц
С 1000 мКФ 0,1 мКФ 100 МКФ 0,1 мкФ 100 МКФ 0,1 мКФ 0,1 мКФ 500 пФ 0,01 мкФ 10 пФ
Хс 3,2 Ом 32 кОм 1,6 Ом 1,6 кОм 0,08 Ом 80 Ом 8 Ом 1,6 кОм 1,6 Ом 1,6  кОм
L 1 Гн 50 МГн Гн 50 мГн 1 Гн 50 мГн 50 мГн мГн 100 мкГн 5 мкГн
XL 320 ОМ 16 Ом 6,4 кОм 320 Ом 128 кОм 64 кОм 60 кОм 1,28 кОм 6,4 кОм 320 Ом



In the first row of Table 8 contains some numerical values (decibels dB), the second line corresponding to these decibel ratio of two currents or two voltages, or, equivalently, the two sound pressures, and, finally, the third row are placed corresponding to a given number of decibels ratio of power, or, equivalently, the ratio of luminous sound.
In the second and third rows of the table show the number of how many times more than the current one or the other how many times one more than the other power of IT. d. When it comes to improving the current (voltage, power um d) the number of decibels considered to be positive, but if there is a weakening of current (voltage, power and etc), the number of decibels is considered negative, and confronted with the minus sign . For example, the entry "20 cJ5» or «+20 cJ5» means that there is an amplification of current ten-fold and power a hundred times (the ratio of current and power are always square), and write "-20" means that there is a weakening of current ten times and the power of a hundred times.

Table 8.

дБ 1 2 3 6 10 20 30 40 50 60
I`/I 1,112 1,26 1,41 2 3,16 10 31,6 100 316 1000
P`IP 1,26 1,58 2 4 10 100 1000 10^4 10^5 10^6

    Note. You can get the ratio of "time" and "decibel" is not listed in the table for the desired number of dB obtained by summing the values available in the first row of the table and multiply the corresponding values from the second or third row. For example, 80 cJ5 (60 + 20) corresponds to the increase in the current 10000 times (10 x 1000), a higher power in 10A8 times (100 x 10A6).

   9. Ferrite

    Ferrites are among Magnetodielectrics, materials that have a relatively high permeability (like steel), and at the same time does not conduct electricity (as opposed to steel), an insulator. The basis of magneto-dielectrics - Pressed tiny grains of ferromagnetic substances, isolated from each other. Depending on the composition of the grains, their size and structure of ferrite, he either has a relatively high permeability, but it can only work at relatively low frequencies (meaning "work" as the core of the transformer or coil), or, conversely, can work at relatively high frequencies, but has a lower permeability. Permeability is a brand name of the ferrite. For example, the brand HH 600 (formerly known as F-600), permeability = 660. The boundary frequencies F for some grades of ferrite below this frequency, above which will lead to a sharp increase in losses in the core.


   10. DYNAMIC RANGE audible

The first column shows some specific values of sound pressure (in Newtons per square meter) characterize the intensity of sound, and the second column - corresponding to a particular sound pressure of sound power (in watts per square meter. The third column shows (in decibels) at how a particular sound pressure level (loudness) is higher than the threshold of audibility, which can be taken as the zero level of sound. The last column gives examples of real sounds that correspond to a particular sound pressure.

Table 9.

Сила звука Вт/м^2 Звуковое давление Н/м^2 (Па) дБ Примеры
10^-12 2 x 10^-5 0 Порог слышимости
10^-11 6,5 x 10^-5 10 Шепот на расстоянии 1 м
10^-10 2 x 10^-4 20 Тихий сад
10^-9 6,5 x 10^-4 30 Тихая комната. Игра скрипки пианиссимо
10^-8 2 x 10^-3 40 Негромкая музыка. Город ночью
10^-7 6,5 x 10^-3 50 Шум в служебном помещении с открытыми окнами
10^-6 0,02 60 Разговорная речь на расстоянии 1 м.
10^-5 0,065 70 Шум внутри трамвая
10^-4 0,2 80 Шумная улица
10^-3 0,65 90 Фортиссимо большого оркестра
0,01 2 100 Клепальная машина
0,1 6,5 110 Паровой молот
1 20 120 Реактивный двигатель на расстоянии 5м
10 65 130 Болевой порог, шум уже не слышен



In amateur practice are used mainly to dynamic microphones (R-69) with built-in transformers without them. In the first case, the recommended load impedance microphone (the load is the input impedance of the amplifier input or divider) of approximately 200-300 ohm microphones without transformers are designed for load resistance of several ohms, they are usually connected directly to the input of the transistor amplifier.
The main characteristics of microphones: the band of frequencies (in brackets the unevenness of the frequency response within this band), sensitivity (U - voltage, mV, which appears at the output of the microphone under the influence of sound pressure in 1 la), directional (NN - omni-directional microphone, the there are those who are equally well capture sounds from all directions, and OH - unidirectional microphone sound with the main directions of "hear" better than the noises that come from other directions).



Until 1964, all diodes denoted by the letter D, beyond which stood a figure indicating the type of device. Point-contact germanium diodes numeral from 1 to 100, silicon point - between 101 and 200, planar germanium - from 201 to 300 and planar silicon - from 301 to 400. Old diodes manufactured today, have kept their names in the notation introduced after 1964, before the letter D is G or A (germanium or silicon), after the letters are three-digit number for the rectifier diodes, it can be from 101 to 399, for universal - from 401 to 499. Here are details of some common types of diodes, having such designations U - allowable reverse voltage in volts / - allowable forward current in mA (if the current in amperes - close to the figure is the letter A). If there are several groups of diodes of this type, then in turn provides data for each of them, for example, U A - 20 B - 30 means that the diode group and the permissible reverse voltage of 20 V, for group B - 30 B, the notation U - 20 (A - 30 B - 40) means that for all groups of V '== 20 V, except for groups A and B, for which, respectively, U = 30 V, and U == 40 V.



In previous years there were different systems of notation transistors, and many units have retained their old name. Typically, it begins with the letters P or MP, it stands for the number with the following value from 1 to 100 - Bass thin germanium transistors,
from 101 to 200, too, silicon,
from 201 to 300-strong bass germanium transistors,
from 301 to 400 - also, silicon,
from 401 to 500 low-power germanium RF transistors,
from 501 to 600 - also, silicon,
from 601 to 700 strong germanium RF transistors
Well, at the end of yet another letter of this type of device type.

In 1964 appeared notation of semiconductor devices, which in its main features still exists today. The first element designations said about the semiconductor material of the letter D (figure 1) means germanium, the letter K (figure 2) - silicon. The second element (the letter) means D - diode, T - transistor, V - variable-capacitance diode (semiconductor capacitor, capacitance varies with izmenenieg, supply voltage), F - Photopribor, C - Zener IT. d. In the third element of transistors - three-digit number - indicates the group unit.
101-399 low-power transistors (up to 0,3 W), including 101-199 low-frequency (up to 3 MHz), 201-299 midrange (up to 30 MHz) and 301-399 high-frequency (up to 300 MHz),
401-699-medium-power transistors, including the low-frequency 401-499, 501 - 599 midrange, 601-699 high-frequency,
701-999-power transistors (more than 1,5 W), including low-frequency 701-799, 801-899 - midrange and 901-999 - high


And again, as always, the last letter - a specific device among the transistors of this type.
Here are details of some types of transistors (in square brackets - the scheme the findings in the K-6), including the most "ancient" is, in particular, will understand the old industrial and amateur circuit, and, if necessary, translate them into modern element base .
These transistors are close to the names and parameters are given in a single block, with the adopted notation U - allowable voltage between the collector and emitter in volts, I-allowable collector current in mA (where the current in amperes, close to the figure is the letter A ), P - allowable power dissipated in the reservoir with the radiator, and without him in milliwatts (where the power in watts, is W), B - the static gain of the flow / o - reverse collector current in microamperes, the frequency fs megahertz, which real properties of the amplifying transistor still quite high (an informal description, in official references lead edge frequencies on specified conditions).


Initially, the data are typical for the whole of the group, then in parentheses are deviations from individual transistors. For example, the symbol U - 20 (A, B - 30) means that for all the devices of this group with any characters at the end allowed collector voltage of 20 V, except for appliances with the latest letters A and B, which may be 30 V, the notation B - 10 - 15 (B G - 20 - 30) says that all the devices of this group of current gain in is between 10 and 15, except for appliances with the latest letters B and D, for which the gain is from 20 to 30.
In many cases, data are rounded and gives an accuracy acceptable for amateur construction. Initially, these transistors are p-p-p, then p-p-p, and, finally, field-effect transistors (T-303).


And another important note names identical transistors may begin with different letters - P or MP in this difference is only reflected in their external design, the design of the body. All names of instruments the group of MPs - P indicated the letter P, in cases where mainly produced devices such as IP, the letters are shown in parentheses before the name of transistors.

   14.Polevye transistors

The main characteristic of the amplifying ability of field-effect transistors - the steepness of the 5 characteristics of the drainage current in milliamperes per volt mA / V. The slope shows how changing mA current in the circuit source - sink (it is similar to the collector current of conventional transistors) when changing the voltage between the source and gate of one volt. This tension is somewhat similar to the control signal based on the conventional transistor, the main difference is that in the chain of the gate there is little current like electronic lamp shutter controls the current, not pulling, and pushing the charges, and therefore, if the stock (similar to the collector) is served "Plus, at the gate (similar to the base) filed a" minus ", and conversely, if the stock is fed minus, at the gate -" plus "in certain types of field-effect transistors (eg, KP-304) on the bolt latch release is served voltage, that is the same polarity as in the runoff.
Here are some of the parameters of several field-effect transistors U - permissible voltage between source and drain in volts, of,,-allowable gate voltage on the source (similar to the emitter in volts), I - catabatic allowable current in mA, lo - catabatic current in mA ( zero gate voltage on the source), R-allowable power dissipated in the flow in mW, S - slope mA / V.


Appearance and table the findings of field-effect transistors whose data are presented, are shown in K-6, 20, is taken such reductions, and - the source, with - run-off, s - slide to - body of the device transistors KP102 also produced in the body of the transistor KT315 ( K-6, 19), with the conclusion "and" took the place of the base, the withdrawal "W" - the collector and the output "c" - the place the output of the emitter.
Transistors KP306 and KP350 are two control electrodes, two shutter (like geptodu, electron tubes, which has two control grids, R-91), which in tables and figures are marked with subscripts 1 and 2.

To protect the field-effect transistor from ESD, which even in small quantities is dangerous for the device (field-effect transistor, for example, may fail if you accidentally touch his conclusions lightly electrified sleeve shirt), the findings at the time of installation shorts, wrapped with thin copper wire without insulation (K-18).

15. Integrated circuits

The range of manufactured integrated circuits industry is very wide and it is quite understandable, even from a small set of discrete components can be assembled very large number of different electronic blocks and each block can be represented by a separate chip. However, steps are being taken to make possible a more universal chip, and then go on to solve complex integrated circuits and their challenges and tasks easier, which could be made more simple single chip. But even with such an approach has to produce many different chips, hundreds and thousands of types. Finding your way in the ocean of integrated circuits is not easy, for this we must first know how and to what groups they are divided, what particular chip is reflected in its title.
All integrated circuits, as do all electronic circuits in general, are divided into two large groups - discrete (digital) and analog. Moreover, now all the radio electronics and working in this field specialists made against one of the two large areas - digital and analog technology.


In the electronic circuits are signal processing, which can only have a certain fixed, discrete values of an example of such a system can skive machine sales of carbonated water (T-267, F-154, 1.2), which, like many other machines, operates with limited number of discrete electrical signals - "the coin is omitted, a set is put", "No liquor, and t n a typical representative of a discrete technology - electronic computer (T-270-T-278), where the signal has only two discrete values of pulse (1 ) and pause (0).
Analogue technology operates on the signals, the level of which (or other parameters, such as frequency) can vary smoothly, continuously, acquiring in the process of these changes, countless different values. An example of analog signals can skive continuously evolving and acquiring different meanings of sound and its electrical copies - currents in the circuits of the microphone, amplifier and audio-frequency loudspeaker.

    Two main groups of integrated circuits - digital and analog - unfortunately, not identified in their titles, the experts simply know and remember to which group is this or that series of integrated circuits Each series has its own name (for example, Series K140, K145, K580, Criz um d) and comprises a large number of devices (up to several dozen), similar in purpose and some important characteristics. At the same time in a series of devices can greatly vary in their complexity as well as by function letter "K", which begins with the name of the series, said that the chip is designed for widespread use, and the second letter - if it there indicates the type of case in which the crystal. After the first letter or first letters of the name should be three-digit number - this is the proper name of the series circuits. And usually, denoting the series, just call this number. So they say - "140 Series", "155-series", "580-series" IT. d.


If the first digit in the title of a series of 1,5,6 or 7, the semiconductor chip, a monolithic (T-303), and if the first number 2,4 or 8, the hybrid chip. Over the three-digit number called a series of chips, followed by two letters, they refer to special chip, its functional purpose. Here are some of these letter designations:
G - generators, HS - harmonic (sinusoidal signals), HS - rectangular signals, GL - linearly changing signals, GF - signals a special form, GP - Other
D - detectors YES - amplitude, CI - pulse, DC - Frequency, JP - Other
K - switches and keys Hfr-current, KH - voltage, KP - Other
L-logic elements LI-element and LW - no element, LL - OR element, LA-element AND-NOT, A R - element AND-OR-NOT, LC-element I-ILI-NE/I-ILI LP - Other

X - circuits that perform multiple functions Ha - analog, CL - digital, HK - combined
N - itemsets ND - diodes, NT - transistors, NOT - capacitors, NC - Combined
P - Converters PS - frequency, PD - voltage or current, PA - analog-digital, PV - D / A, OS - code-code
voltage pulse
T - Triggers TV - universal, TR - with separate launch, TM - delayed, TT - accounting, TD - dynamic, TL - Schmitt
U - Amplifiers HC - high frequency, SD - intermediate frequency, VH - low frequency, UK, broadband, MI-pulse

signals, UT-DC-AP, operating
F - filters PV - highpass, FN - lowpass, FE - A band
A - conditioners AG - pulses of rectangular shape, AF - pulse of special shape
R - storage scheme Uzbekistan - operational, RT - permanent, PP - permanent with the possibility of electrical reprogramming, Russia - the permanent erasure with ultraviolet and electrical recording
I-circuit digital devices, IR-registers, IM-adders, IE-counters, IV - encoders, ID - decoders, IA - arithmetic and logic devices
In - circuit computing means BE - microcomputers, VM - microprocessors, BB - circuit IOCTL, BT - memory management scheme, BX - calculators, SH - Controllers
After a couple of letters indicating the appointment of the chip, may be followed by a digit or digits with the letter - is the name of a specific type of chip of the purpose and in this series. Examples of clarifying the naming of integrated circuits can be found on the K-6, 28, 29, where, in particular, shows three different chip 155-series, performing the operation AND-NOT (K155LA1, K155LA2 and K155LAZ), two chips that perform operation AND-OR-NOT (155LR1 and 155LRZ), D-type flip-flop (155TM2) and register (155IR13).

The drawings internal electrical circuits of the integrated circuit, as a rule, do not draw, it depicted in a triangle or a rectangle with the findings, which include rooms near the legs of the shell chips. That represents a particular conclusion of a discrete chip, can speak marks on the diagram (K-6, 27, 28), while the analog-to-the external parts ( "tying"), which connects chip (K-18 , 12,14,15). Without any specific examples of the inclusion of analog integrated circuits, very difficult, if not impossible, to find a way to use.
Thus, the chip 155LA1 consists of two basic elements in pure form - each has made one chetyrehemitternom transistor logic elements and four (scheme works only if the signal is sent simultaneously to the 1-st entrance, and the 2-nd and on the 3rd and 4 th) and a common element is not for them. Sign of the operation and - in the upper left corner of the two rectangles in the diagram 155LA1, as a sign of the operation is NOT - a small circle from which to start drawing the wire, leaving the scheme.
In the chip 155LR1 and 155LRZ the main pillars and the operation is performed, OR (the scheme is triggered if it receives any of the input signals, the symbol OR element - the unit at the top of the rectangle. K155TM2 In the chip of the basic elements collected two triggers. Each which has four different inputs with the generally accepted mark 5, D, C, R Combining inverted output (output from the NOT, the findings of 6 or 8) to the input of D (2 or 12), the input can be filed with the pulses normally alternately switching the trigger and give Output signals 1 and 0 momentum applied to the input 5 out of turn, sets 1 to the direct output (direct output flip-flops - the conclusions of 5 and 9), and the momentum brought by the input of R, set to direct the output 0 (reset)

    One of the most complex circuits 155-series-eight-bit shift register K155IR13, in which about one hundred basic elements that perform different functions. This chip can move left or right on the scale bit binary numbers, for example, instead of the binary 10 (decimal 2) to 100 (decimal 4) or 1000 (decimal 8), which is equivalent to multiplication or division by 2, 4, 8 etc. Binary numbers involved in the operation, are fed to inputs D1-D8, and the result obtained at the outputs 1-8. Teams on the shift of the left (multiplication) serves as input to the D + and the shift to the right - the input of D-. The input of R, as usual, the signal is set to 0 ( "discharge"). Due to the large number of conclusions chip K155IR13 placed in a larger package that has been not 14 feet, and 24.



For generators with the vibrational frequency of the circuit generated voltage is equally dependent on the inductance L and capacitance C. The table gives the frequency, approximately corresponding to certain combinations of these parameters

L 5Гн 1Гн 100мГн 3мГн 3мГн 30мкГн 1000мкГн 250мкГн 10мкГн
C 10МКФ 1мкФ 0,1мкФ 400пФ 45пФ 400пФ 120пФ 500пФ 25пФ
f 22,5Гц 150Гц 1,6кГц 140кГц 420кГц 460кГц 460кГц 460кГц 10МГц


The generator frequency is determined by parameters fazovraschayuschih chains and can be calculated by the approximate formula f = 5300 RC, here f-frequency in Hz, R and C - the resistance and capacitance fazovraschayuschih chains, respectively, in whom and uF frequency multivibrator is approximately calculated by the formula f == 7250 RC, where f-frequency in Hz, R and C - the resistance and capacitance RC-chains, respectively, in whom and uF

   17. Receiver parameters

All radio broadcasting receivers are divided into five main classes, some of the options below

Параметры приемника Высший класс 1-й класс 2-й класс 3-й класс 4-й класс
Чувствительность приемника  (мкВ) ДВ, СВ, КВ 50 150 - 200 150 - 200 200 300
УКВ 5 10 20 30
Чувствительность при приеме на магнитную антенну (мВ/м)     1 2 2,5 3
Избирательность по соседнему каналу (дБ)   60 46 34 26 20
Избирательность по зеркальному каналу  (дБ) ДВ 60 46 40 26 20
СВ 50 26 26 20 20
КВ 26 14 12
УКВ 30 22 22 20
Уровень шумов и фона (дБ) с антенны -54 -44 -40 -30 -30
с входа УНЧ -60 -50 -46 -36 -36


First Source Ed. 03.06 VF Gainutdinov


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